1933

  • January 30: Hitler appointed Chancellor
  • February 27: Reichstag Fire– The burning of the German parliament building. Allowed for Hitler to openly accuse communists and marked the beginning of the Nazi police state.
  • March 18: Jewish lawyers forbidden to conduct legal affairs in Berlin
  • March 20: The first concentration camp, Dachau, is opened
  • April 1: Boycotting of Jewish businesses
  • April 7: Law for the Reestablishment of the Professional Civil Service →  removes Jews from government service (including University professors)
  • April 21: Kosher ritual slaughter of animals forbidden; Jewish prisoners denied the right to receive kosher food; Jewish students who do not attend school on the Sabbath or Jewish holidays are penalized
  • April 25: Law Against Overcrowding in Schools & Universities → limits the number of Jews in public schools to 1.5% of all new applicants; Jewish high school and university students ineligible for reduced school fees and scholarships; Jewish university barred from taking state professional examinations
  • June 28: films only recognized as German if they were made by citizens of German descent
  • July 14: De-Naturalization Law revokes the citizenship of naturalized Jews and “undesirables”
  • October 4: Law on Editors → bans Jews from editorial posts

1935

  • September 15: Nazi leaders announce Nuremberg Laws
  • “Two distinct laws passed in Nazi Germany in September 1935 are known collectively as the Nuremberg Laws: the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor. These laws embodied many of the racial theories underpinning Nazi ideology. They would provide the legal framework for the systematic persecution of Jews in Germany.” (Holocaust Encyclopedia)
  • November 15: German definition of “Jew” emerges- someone with three Jewish grandparents or someone with two Jewish grandparents who identifies as a Jew

1936

  • January 29: Jews have to hang over their electrical and optical equipment, bicycles, typewriters, and records
  • April 3: Jewish veterinary surgeons banned from practicing their profession
  • August 1: The summer Olympics in Berlin
  • August: anti-Jewish posters temporarily removed during the Olympic Games
  • October 15: “Reich Ministry of Education bans Jewish teachers from public schools”
  • October 25: Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sign a treaty of cooperation
  • November 1: Rome-Berlin Axis is announced

1937

  • April 9: The Mayor of Berlin orders public schools not to admit Jewish children until further notice”
  • April 15: Jews forbidden to obtain a doctorate
  • July 13: Opening of Buchenwald concentration camp

1938

  • January 5: Law on the Alteration of Family & Personal Names → forbids Jews from changing their names
  • March 11-13: Germany incorporates Austria in the Anschluss
  • March 22: only Aryan Germans can become allotment holders
  • April 22: Decree Against the Camouflage of Jewish Firms → “forbids changing the names of Jewish-owned businesses”
  • April 26: Order for the disclosure of Jewish Assets → “requires Jews to report all property in excess of 5,000 reichsmarks”
  • July 11: Reich Ministry of the Interior bans Jews from health spas
  • July 25: Jewish doctors not allowed to practice anymore
  • July 27: Jewish street names changed
  • July 31: Non-Jews forbidden to leave anything in their wills to Jews
  • August 17: Executive Order on the Law on the Alteration of Family & Personal Names → requires Jews to adopt an additional name: “Sara” for women and “Israel” for men.
  • September 29: Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France sign the Munich agreement which forces the Czechoslovak Republic to cede the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany
  • April 26: Jews must register all of their property within the Reich
  • August 8: Concentration camp Mauthausen is opened
  • October 3: Decree on the Confiscation of Jewish Property → regulates the transfer of assets from Jews to non-Jewish Germans.
  • October 5: The Reich Interior Ministry invalidates all German passports held by Jews Jews must surrender their old passports, which will become valid only after the letter “J” had been stamped on them.
  • November 9-10: Kristallnacht– pogrom against Jews that resulted in the burning of synagogues, looting of Jewish stores and sending Jewish men to concentration camps.
  • November 12: Jews no longer allowed to conduct independent businesses as craftsmen; Jewish actors and actresses forbidden to carry out their profession; Jews banned from conducting a retail or wholesale business; Jews banned from visiting cinemas, theatres, operas, and concerts; Jews no longer allowed to buy newspapers and magazines
  • November 15: Reich Ministry of Education expels all Jewish children from public schools
  • November 15: Jewish students not allowed entry into German schools
  • November 28: Reich Ministry of Interior restricts the freedom of movement of Jews.
  • December: Jewish publishing houses and bookshops are closed down
  • December 3: Jews not allowed to use swimming pools; have to hand over their driving licenses and vehicle permits; Jews banned from certain districts in the city of Berlin
  • December 21: Jewish women no longer able to practice as midwives

1939

  • January 17: Jewish dentists, chemists, and nurses forbidden to practice
  • January 24  Central office for Jewish emigration set up
  • January 30: Hitler’s speech in Reichstag- He discusses the “Vernichtung” or extermination of European Jews.
  • February 21: Jews have to hand over jewelry, gold, silver, platinum, and pearls
  • September 1: Jewish Curfew established (not allowed to leave homes after 8:00 pm → 9:00 pm in the summer)
  • September 23: Jew’s radios confiscated
  • March 14-15: Under German pressure, the Slovaks declare their independence and form a Slovak Republic. The Germans occupy Czech lands in violation of the Munich agreement, forming a Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
  • March 31: France and Great Britain guarantee the integrity of the borders of Poland
  • April 30: Jews can be evicted from their homes w/o reason or notice
  • May 18: Concentration camp Ravensbruck opens
  • August 23: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a nonaggression agreement and a secret codicil dividing eastern Europe into spheres of influence
  • September 1: Germany invades Poland, initiating WWII in Europe; on September 3, Great Britain and France declare war on Germany
  • September 17: The Soviet Union invades Poland from the east
  • On September 27, Poland surrenders
  • Germany and the Soviet Union divide Poland between them
  • September 21: Establishment of ghettos in German-occupied Poland- directed by Heydrich
  • October 12: Deportations of Austrian and Czech Jews to Poland
  • October 28: The first polish ghetto is established
  • November 23: German-Occupied Poland Jews must wear identifiers (arm band or yellow star)

1940

  • January Jews no longer receive ration cards for clothes
  • April 9: Germany invades Denmark and Norway; Denmark surrenders on the day of the attack, Norway surrenders on June 9
  • May 7: The Lodz Ghetto is closed off with 165,000 people
  • May 10-June 22: Battle of France:
  • Luxembourg is occupied by the Germans on May 10
  • The Netherlands surrenders on May 14
  • Belgium surrenders on May 28
  • On June 22, France signs armistice agreement by which the Germans occupy the northern half of the country and the entire Atlantic coastline.
  • In southern France, a collaborationist regime with its capital in Vichy is established
  • May 20: The concentration camp of Auschwitz is opened
  • July 4: Jews only allowed to buy groceries between 4:00 pm & 5:00 pm
  • June 10: Italy enters the war
  • June 14-August 6: The Soviet Union occupies the Baltic States on June 14-18, engineering Communist coup d’etats in each of them on July 14-15, and then annexing them as Soviet Republics on August 3-6
  • July 10-October 31: Battle of Britain:
  • Luftwaffe strategy was to destroy Royal Air Force bases, and then it changed to bombing towns and cities – this gave the RAF a chance to rebuild its lost aircraft
  • By October: first defeat of the Axis by the Allies
  • The Germans could not achieve air supremacy and had to postpone Operation Sea Lion (the invasion of the British Isles)
  • The Battle of Britain is considered the most important battle because if the United Kingdom had been defeated, Hitler could have focused all of his efforts in the Soviet Union, the Americans and the Soviet Union would have had to fight the Axis alone, and the British Isles could not have been used as a staging point for Operation Overlord
  • September 27: Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact
  • November: Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania join the Axis
  • November 16: The Warsaw Ghetto is sealed (approx. 500,000 people)

1941

  • September 1: Jews over the age of 6 forced to wear Yellow Star of David with “Jew” written on it
  • September 1: Police Decree on Identification of Jews
  • September 13: Jews only allowed to use public transport on their way to work
  • September 18: Jews forbidden to use public transport during rush hour and are only allowed to occupy a seat if no other passengers are standing; Jews need a police permit if they want to leave their place of residence
  • March 1: Bulgaria joins the Axis
  • March 4: all Jews are compelled to do forced labor
  • March: The extermination camp Belzec opens
  • March 24: Jewish children only allowed to use public transport if their school is further than 5 km from their home
  • April 6-17: Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria invade and dismember Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia surrenders on April 17
  • June 22-November: Operation Barbarossa: Nazi Germany and its Axis powers (except Bulgaria) invade the Soviet Union
  • The Red Army is caught extremely off-guard, lose 800,000 men
  • The Germans quickly overrun the Baltic States and lay siege to Leningrad by September
  • In the center, the Germans reach the outskirts of Moscow by October
  • In the south, German and Romanian troops capture Kiev in September and Rostov in November
  • June 26: Jews forbidden to receive soap and shaving soap
  • July-August: Hundreds of thousands of Jews and Russians are killed by the Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units)
  • July 29: Jews have their telephones disconnected and are forbidden to use public telephones
  • July 31: Heydrick begins implementation of the “Final Solution
  • August 2: Jews banned from using public libraries
  • August 3: In a sermon, Bishop Clemens August Graf von Galen rejects euthanasia killings  
  • October: Auschwitz II (Birkenau) is opened as an extermination camp
  • November 25: 11th supplementary decree to the Citizenship Law → deported Jews were stripped of their property
  • December 1: no parcels would be accepted from the Jews in the General Gouvernment ostensibly for “sanitary reasons”
  • December 6: Battle of Moscow: A Soviet counter offensive drives the Germans from Moscow in a chaotic retreat
  • German troops were not prepared to operate in Russian winter
  • Germans sustained around 400,000 casualties
  • Hitler took personal charge of the military, causing mutual distrust between Hitler and the senior officers
  • December 7: Japan bombs Pearl Harbor
  • The next day, the US declares war on Japan, entering WWII
  • Adolf Eichmann becomes the head of the department for Jewish affairs

1942

  • January: Jews hand over fur coats and woollen items
  • January 20: Wannsee Conference in Berlin. Discussion of the “Final solution”took place at this conference
  • February 26: Jews forbidden to use ticket machines
  • March 24: Jews only allowed to use public transport if their workplace is more than 7 km from their home
  • March 26: All Jewish residences to be marked with the Star of David
  • April 24: All use of public transport is prohibited to Jews
  • May: Extermination by gas starts in Sobibor
  • May 30: The British bomb Cologne, bringing the war to Germany for the first time. Over the next three years Anglo-American bombing is aimed at centers of civilian life, reducing it to rubble
  • June 20: all schools are closed to Jewish children
  • June 22: Jews not allowed to have eggs
  • July 10: Jews no longer allowed to have fresh milk
  • August 7: Poles & Jews forbidden to give evidence in court against Germans
  • September 18: supply of meat, meat products, and other rationed groceries to Jews is discontinued
  • October 9: Jews no longer allowed to buy books
  • July 17-February 2, 1943: Battle of Stalingrad:
  • Germany and its Axis partners launch a new offensive in the Soviet Union by bombing the city of Stalingrad
  • September: German troops fight their way into Stalingrad, hold 90% of the city at certain points
  • The Soviet troops hold the city until winter
  • November 23-February 2, 1943: Soviet troops counterattack, breaking through lines northwest and southwest of Stalingrad and trapping the German Sixth Army in the city.
  • Hitler forbids the soldiers to retreat or try to break out of the Soviet ring
  • The survivors of the Sixth Army surrender on January 30 and February 2, 1943
  • The Germans sustained 841,000 casualties
  • November 8: US and British troops land at several points in French North Africa and Vichy French troops fail to defend against the invasión
  • The Allies move swiftly to the western border of Tunisia
  • November 11: Germany occupies southern France
  • Winter: Deportations from Germany, Greece, and Norway to extermination camps

1943

  • Continuous deportations
  • January 19: any person in Europe accused of persecuting Jews could flee to Germany and be granted asylum
  • March: Krakow Ghetto is liquidated
  • May 13: Axis forces in Tunisia surrender to the Allies, ending the war in North Africa
  • July 10: Operation Overlord: US and British troops land on Sicily, Italy, (southern Italy) and control it by mid-August
  • July 5: Battle of Kursk:
  • The Germans launch a (final) massive tank offensive near Kursk in the Soviet Union
  • This was the largest tank battle in history
  • The Soviets stop the attack within a week and then begin their own offensive – German troops will be on the defensive for the rest of the war in the east
  • This was the first time a blitzkrieg had been defeated before the German troops broke through enemy defenses
  • July 25: Mussolini’s dictatorship in Italy ends
  • September 8: Italy’s government surrenders to the Allies. The Germans immediately seize control of Rome and northern Italy, establishing a puppet Fascist regime under Mussolini
  • September 9: Allied troops land on the beaches of Salerno, Italy (southern Italy)
  • November 6: Soviet troops liberate Kiev, Ukraine

1944

  • January 22: Allied troops land successfully near Anzio, Italy, just south of Rome
  • March 19: Germans occupy Hungary, compelling the government to appoint a pro-German minister president
  • May 15: Start of deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz
  • June 4: Allied troops liberate Rome. Anglo-American bombers could hit targets in eastern Germany for the first time
  • June 6: British and US troops successfully land on the Normandy beaches of France, opening a “Second Front” against the Germans
  • June 22: The Soviets launch a massive offensive in eastern Belarus, destroying the German Army Group Center and driving westward to the Vistula River across from Warsaw, Poland by August 1
  • July 20: Attempt by German officers to assassinate Hitler
  • July 25: Anglo-American forces break out of Normandy and race eastward toward Paris, France
  • August 1-October 5: The underground Home Army rises up against the Germans in an effort to liberate Warsaw before the arrival of Soviet troops. The Soviet advance halts on the east bank of the Vistula. On October 5, the Germans accept the surrender of the remnants of the Home Army forces fighting in Warsaw
  • August 15: Allied forces land in southern France near Nice and advance rapidly towards the Rhine River to the northeast
  • August 20-25: Allied troops reach Paris. By September, the Allies reach the German border; by December, virtually all of France, most of Belgium, and part of the southern Netherlands are liberated
  • August 23: Romanian opposition overthrows Antonescu, and then joins the Allies. This compels Bulgaria to surrender on September 8, and the Germans to evacuate Greece, Albania, and southern Yugoslavia in October
  • August 29-October 28: Germans put an end to Slovak resistance units
  • September 12: Finland leaves Axis partnership
  • October 15: Hungarian Arrow Cross movement, with German support, prevent the Hungarian government from pursuing negotiations for surrender to the Soviets
  • December 16: The Germans launch a final offensive in the west, known as the Battle of the Bulge, in an attempt to re-conquer Belgium and split the Allied forces along the German border. By January 1, 1945, the Germans are in retreat

1945

  • January 12: The Soviets launch a new offensive, liberating Warsaw and Krakow in January, capturing Budapest after a two-month siege on February 13, driving the Germans and their Hungarian collaborators out of Hungary in early April, forcing the surrender of Slovakia with the capture of Bratislava on April 4, and capturing Vienna, Austria on April 13
  • January 17: Auschwitz is evacuated
  • March 7: US troops cross the Rhine River
  • April 8: Liberation of Buchenwald
  • April 16: The Soviet launch their final offensive, encircling Berlin
  • April 29: Liberation of Dachau
  • April 30: Hitler commits suicide
  • May 7: Liberation of Mauthausen
  • May 7: Germany surrenders to the Allies
  • May 9: Germany surrenders to the Soviets